使用fontello和Abobe Illustrator制作自己的web字体
Tag fontello, Illustrator, web, 字体, on by view 6607

自定义web字体流行已经不是一天两天的事了,仿佛是随着google,ajax,web2.0这些字眼在多年前就已经到来了,不过如今却是越加流行了。用自定义字体代替图片图标确实有着不少好处,比如,字体是矢量的可以无限放大,字体可以随意的改变颜色只需在css中设置color属性即可。最近发现了一个在线字体生成工具很是不错,那就是fontello

fontello提供众多图标供用户定制选择,并且用户还可以上传自己设计的svg图标文件,fontello会将其转化打包为字体文件fontello.eot、fontello.svg、fontello.ttf以及fontello.woff,供不同的浏览器调用,它在浏览器中的调用方式和众多的图标字体的调用方式是一样的——通过css调用,或者说通过指定class值的html节点调用,相信所有人都会使用,如果不会,自己查看打包目录下的demo.html文件就会了。

字体设计:

首先打开Illustrator,通过性状工具以及钢笔工具勾勒出你所需要的图形,然后转化为复合路径(对象>复合路径>建立),然后保存为svg配置文件SVG 1.1,即可生成svg文件。

illustrator_demo.png

然后,在fontello页面的custom区域拖拽上传svg文件便会生成自定义的字体文字(或者说是图标),选中它,以及你所需要的图标,点击download便可以打包字体文件。

fontello.png

使用字体图标的好处就不在赘述了。在Illustrator中设计图标时无需在意图标的颜色,因为对于字体来说是没有颜色的,只有形状,这也是在Illustrator中将其转换为复合路径的原因。另外需要注意的是在Illustrator中绘制路径的话要保证路径是闭合的,不然无法形成形状,在导入fontello后便会发现图标是空白的,假如你发现自己的图标是空白的或者是全黑的,那么建议你先学习一下Illustrator的使用以及路径和性状这些概念再来设计图标。


内存越界的灾难
Tag C语言, 内存, 越界, on by view 3404

今天为了修复一个bug折腾了将近一天的时间,原本是计划在沙箱子项目里面添加命令行指定配置文件路径功能,结果被我发现之前留下的一个坑,但是整个发现过程花了一整下午的时间。

调试过程中发现明明传入到函数中的路径printf是正确的,可是当执行到fopen时却直接异常退出,于是gdb跟踪调试

filename_interrupt.png

调试显示传入的文件名是正常的,但是当执行到#93步时文件名很明显被截断了,这是一件非常奇怪的事情,我甚至怀疑fopen函数是不是对传入文件名长度有限制,可事实上不是这样的。因为我后来专门写了个测试代码,同样的文件名路径,fopen却是正常的。我又怀疑是不是因为文件名字符串是malloc分配的原因,测试后却也是正常的。

非常纠结,之后决定采用大段大段的砍掉无关代码的方法来更清晰的定位错误可能的位置,因为代码带多确实看着眼花缭乱。当我砍到只剩下调用config_read的时候,惊奇的发现上面内存初始化是这样的:

// alloc memory for path string    
executable = (char*)malloc(sizeof(EXE_LEN));    
memset(executable, 0, sizeof(EXE_LEN));

shit! 这儿的EXE_LEN是int型指定文件名长度的啊,也就是说sizeof(EXE_LEN)是4byte,坑爹啊。但是我后面给这个内存strncpy了73个字符组成的字符串,嗯,编译器没给我报错,然后这内存几经传递传到了fopen里面,却被莫名的修改了,呵呵,修改了活该啊,谁让我把剩下的69个字符强行放入了它不该放的地方呢。其实应该是这个字符串越界到了fopen函数所使用的内存去,被修改也是太正常不过了。

C语言编程确实需要小心谨慎,因为编译器给你的提示实在是太少,逻辑错了就会按照错的运行,结果便会是谬之千里。



beego中使用fis
Tag beego, fis, on by view 8705

前段时间接触到了fis,后来发现它正是我所寻找的一类前端工具。之前在byvoid大神的博客上看到前端html源码中引用的js和css都是在文件名后面附加了随机串。如/css/style-882e60051fc11fd2558e888585fc3950.css。我感觉这个做法应该有他的深意。接触fis后才知道,文件md5映射之后可以在服务器端开启静态文件永久缓存,如此一来可以最大化利用浏览器的缓存机制,起到加快页面加载速度节省流量的效果。由于md5映射的文件名是唯一的,所以不用担心缓存导致的前端问题。这一技术在许多其他的网站上也有用到,例如百度、twitter等,其中fis就是出自百度,据fis文档介绍,其中某些创意是受twitter启发的。

最近一直在用beego做项目,于是打算将fis的md5映射机制迁移到beego上来,fis官网文档上介绍了fis在go web的实现demo,不过它是基于martini框架的,在多番查阅文档后,我觉得若是抛开模版内的资源文件自动打包这一功能单纯实现md5映射,我能够自己将其在beego上实现。

fis中带md5映射的前端资源全部记录于map.json文件中,fis项目编译后会自动生成map.json文件,示例如下

{
    "res": {
        "js/global.js": {
            "uri": "/static/js/global_f39ad61.js",
            "type": "js"
        },
        "js/user.js": {
            "uri": "/static/js/user_42dbc3b.js",
            "type": "js"
        },
        "octicons/octicons.scss": {
            "uri": "/static/octicons/octicons_1b828d3.css",
            "type": "css"
        },
        "sass/index.scss": {
            "uri": "/static/css/index_b855d1c.css",
            "type": "css"
        },
        "sass/login.scss": {
            "uri": "/static/css/login_c8abcc0.css",
            "type": "css"
        },
        "sass/register.scss": {
            "uri": "/static/css/register_b76a400.css",
            "type": "css"
        },
        "sass/style.scss": {
            "uri": "/static/css/style_462f7a1.css",
            "type": "css"
        }
    },
    "pkg": {}
}

这其中"res"项就是资源映射表,"js/global.js"以及"js/global.js"等是编译前的文件,即fis项目源文件,而"/static/js/global_f39ad61.js"以及"/static/octicons/octicons_1b828d3.css"等是编译后的文件,网站应当加载编译后的文件,而编译后的文件名是变动的,每次修改源文件并编译后,编译后的文件名md5值便会变化,不过编译前的文件名是不变的,因此,思路是通过编译前文件名得到对应的编译后的文件名,然后加载到网页。beego实现如下:

在工具包utils里有

package utils

import (
	"fmt"
	"github.com/astaxie/beego"
	"github.com/gogather/com"
	"html/template"
)

// fis map
func Fis(key string) template.HTML {
	var text string
	content := loadMap()
	json, _ := com.JsonDecode(content)
	json = json.(map[string]interface{})["res"]
	if fileMap, ok := json.(map[string]interface{}); !ok {
		fmt.Println("map.json id illeage!")
	} else {
		for tmpKey, views := range fileMap {
			uri, ok := views.(map[string]interface{})["uri"].(string)
			if !ok {
				fmt.Println("error in map.json")
			}

			fileType, ok := views.(map[string]interface{})["type"].(string)
			if !ok {
				fmt.Println("error in map.json")
			}

			if tmpKey == key {
				if fileType == "css" {
					text = `<link rel="stylesheet" href="` + uri + `">`
				} else if fileType == "js" {
					text = `<script src="` + uri + `"></script>`
				}
			}
		}
	}

	return template.HTML(text)
}

// load map.json
func loadMap() string {
	mapPath := beego.AppConfig.String("static_map")
	mapContent := com.ReadFile(mapPath)
	return mapContent
}

其中Fis函数便是由编译前的文件名查找编译后的文件名。接下来是注册模版函数

beego.AddFuncMap("asset", utils.Fis)

然后你就可以在模版中这样引入js或者css文件了

{{template "inc/header.tpl" .}}
{{asset "sass/login.scss"}}
	<div class="info">&nbsp</div>
	<div class="login">
		<form action="/login">
			<ul>
				<li><label for="">用户名</label><input type="text" name="username" id=""></li>
				<li><label for="">密码</label><input type="password" name="password" id=""></li>
				<li class="login-btns">
					<button class="btn">{{i18n "login"}}</button>
					<a class="btn oauth-login" href="https://github.com/login/oauth/authorize?client_id={{.github_client_id}}&scope=user,public_repo" target="_blank"><span class="octicon octicon-logo-github"></span>登录</a>
				</li>
			</ul>
		</form>
	</div>
{{asset "js/user.js"}}
{{template "inc/footer.tpl" .}}

其中

{{asset "sass/login.scss"}}

便是引入"sass/login.scss"对应的编译后的css文件。

如此,便实现了利用fis的md5映射功能,现在可以放心开启js和css的强制缓存了。最后附上我自己的项目地址供大家借鉴https://github.com/duguying/ojsite 。


用github登录,oauth开发
Tag github, oauth, on by view 8506

最近做的oj项目的网站子项目中要使用到“用github登录”这一功能,也就是oauth,于是研究了一番。

github的oauth验证的过程如下:

用户访问登录验证接入口

https://github.com/login/oauth/authorize?client_id=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx&scope=user,public_repo     

其中client_id由开发者在github网站上申请,无限制。
registor_github_oauth.png
申请成功后,获取client_id和client_secret
get_github_oauth_id_secret.png

用户访问上面的url之后,github会让其跳转到你预定的url,并且带上code参数,例如

http://oj.duguying.net/oauth/github?code=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 
   

然后,开发者可以通过code,client_id以及client_secret这三个参数获取用户的access_token即用户身份标识,请求如下

https://github.com/login/oauth/access_token?client_id=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx&client_secret=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx&code=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

这个请求将会返回如下内容 

access_token=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx&scope=public_repo%2Cuser&token_type=bearer 

有了access_token之后,只需要通过如下请求就可以获取用户信息

https://api.github.com/user?access_token=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

返回的信息将会是json格式。注意整个请求过程中都是使用GET请求。只要理解了oauth验证过程,如此就很容易编程实现了。

最后,附上我自己用golang实现的github的oauth验证库https://github.com/gogather/oauth


texlive中文书签乱码
Tag texlive, pdf, 中文, 书签, 乱码, on by view 7758

一个纠结了两天的问题,我之前在ctex环境下的latex项目迁移到texlive环境出现的问题。我之前的项目是gbk编码的,用ctex环境编译,因此,也只能够支持windows环境,故而,我将其转移到了texlive环境编写,字符集也由原来的gbk变为了utf8,这时出现问题了,起初解决书签乱码的方法是在编译过程中将生成的bachelor.out文件的编码由原来的gbk转为unicode,使用的是一个命令行工具gbk2uni.exe,可是现在全部变为utf8格式了out文件也不再是gbk,原来的转换方法无效了,后来也试着吧utf8格式的out文件转为unicode格式,可是还是无效,纠结很久,解决方法如下。

原文档头部如下

\documentclass{article}    
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}    
\usepackage{latexsym}    
\usepackage{CJK}    
\usepackage{listings,xcolor}    
\usepackage{graphicx}    
\usepackage{titlesec}    
\usepackage[dvipdfm,    
            pdfstartview=FitH,    
            CJKbookmarks=true,    
            bookmarksnumbered=true,    
            bookmarksopen=true,    
            colorlinks=true, %注释掉此项则交叉引用为彩色边框(将colorlinks和pdfborder同时注释掉)    
            %pdfborder=001,   %注释掉此项则交叉引用为彩色边框    
            citecolor=magenta,% magenta , cyan    
            linkcolor=blue,    
            linktocpage=true,    
            ]{hyperref}       % hyperref 宏包通常要求放在导言区的最后!!!    
\usepackage{titletoc}

修改为

\documentclass{ctexartutf8}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb}
\usepackage{latexsym}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\usepackage{listings,xcolor}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{titlesec}

\usepackage[unicode,dvipdfm,
            pdfstartview=FitH,
            colorlinks=true, %注释掉此项则交叉引用为彩色边框(将colorlinks和pdfborder同时注释掉)
            %pdfborder=001,   %注释掉此项则交叉引用为彩色边框
            citecolor=magenta,% magenta , cyan
            linkcolor=blue,
            linktocpage=true,
            ]{hyperref}       % hyperref 宏包通常要求放在导言区的最后!!!
\usepackage{titletoc}

其中主要是将CJK包改为CJKutf8,另外原来需要开启CJKbookmark=true这些都不要了,当然\documentclass需要改为支持CJKutf8的格式,比如ctexartutf8等。

这个问题的的确确困扰了我至少两天的时间,最终还是在google上搜索错误信息! Argument of \HyPsd@GetTwoBytes has an extra }.找到一封邮件(http://lists.ffii.org/pipermail/cjk/2007-February/001832.html),这才恍然大悟。


windows服务注册工具nssm
Tag nssm, windows, 服务, 注册, on by view 8389

在windows系统上注册一个服务通常你要这么做:

首先,如果这个服务程序是你写的话,你必须在程序中编写ServiceMain服务主函数用来启动服务,并且要在程序中注册服务启动函数,函数原型如下。

VOID WINAPI ServiceMain(
  DWORD dwArgc,
  LPTSTR* lpszArgv
);

然后,你需要修改注册表相关信息,在注册表项"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\"中自动增加项[服务名],并在其下成功添加各个键值:

"DisplayName"   =服务显示名     (字符串值)
"Description"      =服务描述       (字符串值)
"ImagePath"       =应用程序路径   (可扩充字符串值)
"ObjectName"    ="LocalSystem"  (字符串值)
"Type"                =10(16进制)     (dword值)
"Start"                =2(16进制)      (dword值)
"ErrorControl"     =1(16进制)      (dword值)

或者直接执行instsrv [服务名] [应用程序路径],自动添加注册表信息。(不过貌似只有服务器版的windows才有instsrv命令)

完成上述操作后,如果不出意外你可以在服务管理器services.msc中可以看到你的服务。当然你如果想卸载服务,至少得把上面的第二步反过来做一遍,即清理注册表。

现在有一个更好的工具可以完成这项任务,nssm

nssm是一个命令行工具,也支持gui。

nssm install <ServerName> <Program Path>  #安装
nssm remove <ServerName> confirm          #卸载

nssm_usage_demo.png
命令行使用

nssm_gui_usage_install.png
GUI使用(安装)

nssm_gui_usage_remove.png
GUI使用(卸载)

使用nssm来安装windows服务是不需要主程序中注册服务的,也就是说想将一个程序变为服务程序有了nssm后你无需修改代码。


64位linux系统,系统调用表
Tag syscall, linux, x64, 64位, 系统调用, on by view 2099

Linux 3.2.0-33, x86_64

Note: 64-bit x86 uses syscall instead of interrupt 0x80. The result value will be in %rax

To find the implementation of a system call, grep the kernel tree for SYSCALL_DEFINE.\?(syscall,
For example, to find the read system call:

illusion:/usr/src/linux-source-3.2.0$ grep -rA3 'SYSCALL_DEFINE.\?(read,' *
fs/read_write.c:SYSCALL_DEFINE3(read, unsigned int, fd, char __user *, buf, size_t, count)
fs/read_write.c-{
fs/read_write.c-        struct file *file;
fs/read_write.c-        ssize_t ret = -EBADF;

The results show that the implementation is in fs/read_write.c and that it takes 3 arguments (thus SYSCALL_DEFINE3).

Linux Cross Reference is another good tool for finding information about system calls.

By the way, the system call numbers are different for 32-bit x86. A system call table for i386 (32-bit) can be found at  http://docs.cs.up.ac.za/programming/asm/derick_tut/syscalls.htm


%rax System call %rdi %rsi %rdx %rcx %r8 %r9
0 sys_read unsigned int fd char *buf size_t count      
1 sys_write unsigned int fd const char *buf size_t count      
2 sys_open const char *filename int flags int mode      
3 sys_close unsigned int fd          
4 sys_stat const char *filename struct stat *statbuf        
5 sys_fstat unsigned int fd struct stat *statbuf        
6 sys_lstat fconst char *filename struct stat *statbuf        
7 sys_poll struct poll_fd *ufds unsigned int nfds long timeout_msecs      
8 sys_lseek unsigned int fd off_t offset unsigned int origin      
9 sys_mmap unsigned long addr unsigned long len unsigned long prot unsigned long flags unsigned long fd unsigned long off
10 sys_mprotect unsigned long start size_t len unsigned long prot      
11 sys_munmap unsigned long addr size_t len        
12 sys_brk unsigned long brk          
13 sys_rt_sigaction int sig const struct sigaction *act struct sigaction *oact size_t sigsetsize    
14 sys_rt_sigprocmask int how sigset_t *nset sigset_t *oset size_t sigsetsize    
15 sys_rt_sigreturn unsigned long __unused          
16 sys_ioctl unsigned int fd unsigned int cmd unsigned long arg      
17 sys_pread64 unsigned long fd char *buf size_t count loff_t pos    
18 sys_pwrite64 unsigned int fd const char *buf size_t count loff_t pos    
19 sys_readv unsigned long fd const struct iovec *vec unsigned long vlen      
20 sys_writev unsigned long fd const struct iovec *vec unsigned long vlen      
21 sys_access const char *filename int mode        
22 sys_pipe int *filedes          
23 sys_select int n fd_set *inp fd_set *outp fd_set*exp struct timeval *tvp  
24 sys_sched_yield            
25 sys_mremap unsigned long addr unsigned long old_len unsigned long new_len unsigned long flags unsigned long new_addr  
26 sys_msync unsigned long start size_t len int flags      
27 sys_mincore unsigned long start size_t len unsigned char *vec      
28 sys_madvise unsigned long start size_t len_in int behavior      
29 sys_shmget key_t key size_t size int shmflg      
30 sys_shmat int shmid char *shmaddr int shmflg      
31 sys_shmctl int shmid int cmd struct shmid_ds *buf      
32 sys_dup unsigned int fildes          
33 sys_dup2 unsigned int oldfd unsigned int newfd        
34 sys_pause            
35 sys_nanosleep struct timespec *rqtp struct timespec *rmtp        
36 sys_getitimer int which struct itimerval *value        
37 sys_alarm unsigned int seconds          
38 sys_setitimer int which struct itimerval *value struct itimerval *ovalue      
39 sys_getpid            
40 sys_sendfile int out_fd int in_fd off_t *offset size_t count    
41 sys_socket int family int type int protocol      
42 sys_connect int fd struct sockaddr *uservaddr int addrlen      
43 sys_accept int fd struct sockaddr *upeer_sockaddr int *upeer_addrlen      
44 sys_sendto int fd void *buff size_t len unsigned flags struct sockaddr *addr int addr_len
45 sys_recvfrom int fd void *ubuf size_t size unsigned flags struct sockaddr *addr int *addr_len
46 sys_sendmsg int fd struct msghdr *msg unsigned flags      
47 sys_recvmsg int fd struct msghdr *msg unsigned int flags      
48 sys_shutdown int fd int how        
49 sys_bind int fd struct sokaddr *umyaddr int addrlen      
50 sys_listen int fd int backlog        
51 sys_getsockname int fd struct sockaddr *usockaddr int *usockaddr_len      
52 sys_getpeername int fd struct sockaddr *usockaddr int *usockaddr_len      
53 sys_socketpair int family int type int protocol int *usockvec    
54 sys_setsockopt int fd int level int optname char *optval int optlen  
55 sys_getsockopt int fd int level int optname char *optval int *optlen  
56 sys_clone unsigned long clone_flags unsigned long newsp void *parent_tid void *child_tid    
57 sys_fork            
58 sys_vfork            
59 sys_execve const char *filename const char *const argv[] const char *const envp[]      
60 sys_exit int error_code          
61 sys_wait4 pid_t upid int *stat_addr int options struct rusage *ru    
62 sys_kill pid_t pid int sig        
63 sys_uname struct old_utsname *name          
64 sys_semget key_t key int nsems int semflg      
65 sys_semop int semid struct sembuf *tsops unsigned nsops      
66 sys_semctl int semid int semnum int cmd union semun arg    
67 sys_shmdt char *shmaddr          
68 sys_msgget key_t key int msgflg        
69 sys_msgsnd int msqid struct msgbuf *msgp size_t msgsz int msgflg    
70 sys_msgrcv int msqid struct msgbuf *msgp size_t msgsz long msgtyp int msgflg  
71 sys_msgctl int msqid int cmd struct msqid_ds *buf      
72 sys_fcntl unsigned int fd unsigned int cmd unsigned long arg      
73 sys_flock unsigned int fd unsigned int cmd        
74 sys_fsync unsigned int fd          
75 sys_fdatasync unsigned int fd          
76 sys_truncate const char *path long length        
77 sys_ftruncate unsigned int fd unsigned long length        
78 sys_getdents unsigned int fd struct linux_dirent *dirent unsigned int count      
79 sys_getcwd char *buf unsigned long size        
80 sys_chdir const char *filename          
81 sys_fchdir unsigned int fd          
82 sys_rename const char *oldname const char *newname        
83 sys_mkdir const char *pathname int mode        
84 sys_rmdir const char *pathname          
85 sys_creat const char *pathname int mode        
86 sys_link const char *oldname const char *newname        
87 sys_unlink const char *pathname          
88 sys_symlink const char *oldname const char *newname        
89 sys_readlink const char *path char *buf int bufsiz      
90 sys_chmod const char *filename mode_t mode        
91 sys_fchmod unsigned int fd mode_t mode        
92 sys_chown const char *filename uid_t user git_t group      
93 sys_fchown unsigned int fd uid_t user git_t group      
94 sys_lchown const char *filename uid_t user git_t group      
95 sys_umask int mask          
96 sys_gettimeofday struct timeval *tv struct timezone *tz        
97 sys_getrlimit unsigned int resource struct rlimit *rlim        
98 sys_getrusage int who struct rusage *ru        
99 sys_sysinfo struct sysinfo *info          
100 sys_times struct sysinfo *info          
101 sys_ptrace long request long pid unsigned long addr unsigned long data    
102 sys_getuid            
103 sys_syslog int type char *buf int len      
104 sys_getgid            
105 sys_setuid uid_t uid          
106 sys_setgid git_t gid          
107 sys_geteuid            
108 sys_getegid            
109 sys_setpgid pid_t pid pid_t pgid        
110 sys_getppid            
111 sys_getpgrp            
112 sys_setsid            
113 sys_setreuid uid_t ruid uid_t euid        
114 sys_setregid git_t rgid gid_t egid        
115 sys_getgroups int gidsetsize gid_t *grouplist        
116 sys_setgroups int gidsetsize gid_t *grouplist        
117 sys_setresuid uid_t *ruid uid_t *euid uid_t *suid      
118 sys_getresuid uid_t *ruid uid_t *euid uid_t *suid      
119 sys_setresgid gid_t rgid gid_t egid gid_t sgid      
120 sys_getresgid git_t *rgid git_t *egid git_t *sgid      
121 sys_getpgid pid_t pid          
122 sys_setfsuid uid_t uid          
123 sys_setfsgid gid_t gid          
124 sys_getsid pid_t pid          
125 sys_capget cap_user_header_t header cap_user_data_t dataptr        
126 sys_capset cap_user_header_t header const cap_user_data_t data        
127 sys_rt_sigpending sigset_t *set size_t sigsetsize        
128 sys_rt_sigtimedwait const sigset_t *uthese siginfo_t *uinfo const struct timespec *uts size_t sigsetsize    
129 sys_rt_sigqueueinfo pid_t pid int sig siginfo_t *uinfo      
130 sys_rt_sigsuspend sigset_t *unewset size_t sigsetsize        
131 sys_sigaltstack const stack_t *uss stack_t *uoss        
132 sys_utime char *filename struct utimbuf *times        
133 sys_mknod const char *filename int mode unsigned dev      
134 sys_uselib NOT IMPLEMENTED          
135 sys_personality unsigned int personality          
136 sys_ustat unsigned dev struct ustat *ubuf        
137 sys_statfs const char *pathname struct statfs *buf        
138 sys_fstatfs unsigned int fd struct statfs *buf        
139 sys_sysfs int option unsigned long arg1 unsigned long arg2      
140 sys_getpriority int which int who        
141 sys_setpriority int which int who int niceval      
142 sys_sched_setparam pid_t pid struct sched_param *param        
143 sys_sched_getparam pid_t pid struct sched_param *param        
144 sys_sched_setscheduler pid_t pid int policy struct sched_param *param      
145 sys_sched_getscheduler pid_t pid          
146 sys_sched_get_priority_max int policy          
147 sys_sched_get_priority_min int policy          
148 sys_sched_rr_get_interval pid_t pid struct timespec *interval        
149 sys_mlock unsigned long start size_t len        
150 sys_munlock unsigned long start size_t len        
151 sys_mlockall int flags          
152 sys_munlockall            
153 sys_vhangup            
154 sys_modify_ldt int func void *ptr unsigned long bytecount      
155 sys_pivot_root const char *new_root const char *put_old        
156 sys__sysctl struct __sysctl_args *args          
157 sys_prctl int option unsigned long arg2 unsigned long arg3 unsigned long arg4   unsigned long arg5
158 sys_arch_prctl struct task_struct *task int code unsigned long *addr      
159 sys_adjtimex struct timex *txc_p          
160 sys_setrlimit unsigned int resource struct rlimit *rlim        
161 sys_chroot const char *filename          
162 sys_sync            
163 sys_acct const char *name          
164 sys_settimeofday struct timeval *tv struct timezone *tz        
165 sys_mount char *dev_name char *dir_name char *type unsigned long flags void *data  
166 sys_umount2 const char *target int flags        
167 sys_swapon const char *specialfile int swap_flags        
168 sys_swapoff const char *specialfile          
169 sys_reboot int magic1 int magic2 unsigned int cmd void *arg    
170 sys_sethostname char *name int len        
171 sys_setdomainname char *name int len        
172 sys_iopl unsigned int level struct pt_regs *regs        
173 sys_ioperm unsigned long from unsigned long num int turn_on      
174 sys_create_module REMOVED IN Linux 2.6          
175 sys_init_module void *umod unsigned long len const char *uargs      
176 sys_delete_module const chat *name_user unsigned int flags        
177 sys_get_kernel_syms REMOVED IN Linux 2.6          
178 sys_query_module REMOVED IN Linux 2.6          
179 sys_quotactl unsigned int cmd const char *special qid_t id void *addr    
180 sys_nfsservctl NOT IMPLEMENTED          
181 sys_getpmsg NOT IMPLEMENTED          
182 sys_putpmsg NOT IMPLEMENTED          
183 sys_afs_syscall NOT IMPLEMENTED          
184 sys_tuxcall NOT IMPLEMENTED          
185 sys_security NOT IMPLEMENTED          
186 sys_gettid            
187 sys_readahead int fd loff_t offset size_t count      
188 sys_setxattr const char *pathname const char *name const void *value size_t size int flags  
189 sys_lsetxattr const char *pathname const char *name const void *value size_t size int flags  
190 sys_fsetxattr int fd const char *name const void *value size_t size int flags  
191 sys_getxattr const char *pathname const char *name void *value size_t size    
192 sys_lgetxattr const char *pathname const char *name void *value size_t size    
193 sys_fgetxattr int fd const har *name void *value size_t size    
194 sys_listxattr const char *pathname char *list size_t size      
195 sys_llistxattr const char *pathname char *list size_t size      
196 sys_flistxattr int fd char *list size_t size      
197 sys_removexattr const char *pathname const char *name        
198 sys_lremovexattr const char *pathname const char *name        
199 sys_fremovexattr int fd const char *name        
200 sys_tkill pid_t pid ing sig        
201 sys_time time_t *tloc          
202 sys_futex u32 *uaddr int op u32 val struct timespec *utime u32 *uaddr2 u32 val3
203 sys_sched_setaffinity pid_t pid unsigned int len unsigned long *user_mask_ptr      
204 sys_sched_getaffinity pid_t pid unsigned int len unsigned long *user_mask_ptr      
205 sys_set_thread_area NOT IMPLEMENTED. Use arch_prctl          
206 sys_io_setup unsigned nr_events aio_context_t *ctxp        
207 sys_io_destroy aio_context_t ctx          
208 sys_io_getevents aio_context_t ctx_id long min_nr long nr struct io_event *events    
209 sys_io_submit aio_context_t ctx_id long nr struct iocb **iocbpp      
210 sys_io_cancel aio_context_t ctx_id struct iocb *iocb struct io_event *result      
211 sys_get_thread_area NOT IMPLEMENTED. Use arch_prctl          
212 sys_lookup_dcookie u64 cookie64 long buf long len      
213 sys_epoll_create int size          
214 sys_epoll_ctl_old NOT IMPLEMENTED          
215 sys_epoll_wait_old NOT IMPLEMENTED          
216 sys_remap_file_pages unsigned long start unsigned long size unsigned long prot unsigned long pgoff unsigned long flags  
217 sys_getdents64 unsigned int fd struct linux_dirent64 *dirent unsigned int count      
218 sys_set_tid_address int *tidptr          
219 sys_restart_syscall            
220 sys_semtimedop int semid struct sembuf *tsops unsigned nsops const struct timespec *timeout    
221 sys_fadvise64 int fd loff_t offset size_t len int advice    
222 sys_timer_create const clockid_t which_clock struct sigevent *timer_event_spec timer_t *created_timer_id      
223 sys_timer_settime timer_t timer_id int flags const struct itimerspec *new_setting struct itimerspec *old_setting    
224 sys_timer_gettime timer_t timer_id struct itimerspec *setting        
225 sys_timer_getoverrun timer_t timer_id          
226 sys_timer_delete timer_t timer_id          
227 sys_clock_settime const clockid_t which_clock const struct timespec *tp        
228 sys_clock_gettime const clockid_t which_clock struct timespec *tp        
229 sys_clock_getres const clockid_t which_clock struct timespec *tp        
230 sys_clock_nanosleep const clockid_t which_clock int flags const struct timespec *rqtp struct timespec *rmtp    
231 sys_exit_group int error_code          
232 sys_epoll_wait int epfd struct epoll_event *events int maxevents int timeout    
233 sys_epoll_ctl int epfd int op int fd struct epoll_event *event    
234 sys_tgkill pid_t tgid pid_t pid int sig      
235 sys_utimes char *filename struct timeval *utimes        
236 sys_vserver NOT IMPLEMENTED          
237 sys_mbind unsigned long start unsigned long len unsigned long mode unsigned long *nmask unsigned long maxnode unsigned flags
238 sys_set_mempolicy int mode unsigned long *nmask unsigned long maxnode      
239 sys_get_mempolicy int *policy unsigned long *nmask unsigned long maxnode unsigned long addr unsigned long flags  
240 sys_mq_open const char *u_name int oflag mode_t mode struct mq_attr *u_attr    
241 sys_mq_unlink const char *u_name          
242 sys_mq_timedsend mqd_t mqdes const char *u_msg_ptr size_t msg_len unsigned int msg_prio const stuct timespec *u_abs_timeout  
243 sys_mq_timedreceive mqd_t mqdes char *u_msg_ptr size_t msg_len unsigned int *u_msg_prio const struct timespec *u_abs_timeout  
244 sys_mq_notify mqd_t mqdes const struct sigevent *u_notification        
245 sys_mq_getsetattr mqd_t mqdes const struct mq_attr *u_mqstat struct mq_attr *u_omqstat      
246 sys_kexec_load unsigned long entry unsigned long nr_segments struct kexec_segment *segments unsigned long flags    
247 sys_waitid int which pid_t upid struct siginfo *infop int options struct rusage *ru  
248 sys_add_key const char *_type const char *_description const void *_payload size_t plen    
249 sys_request_key const char *_type const char *_description const char *_callout_info key_serial_t destringid    
250 sys_keyctl int option unsigned long arg2 unsigned long arg3 unsigned long arg4 unsigned long arg5  
251 sys_ioprio_set int which int who int ioprio      
252 sys_ioprio_get int which int who        
253 sys_inotify_init            
254 sys_inotify_add_watch int fd const char *pathname u32 mask      
255 sys_inotify_rm_watch int fd __s32 wd        
256 sys_migrate_pages pid_t pid unsigned long maxnode const unsigned long *old_nodes const unsigned long *new_nodes    
257 sys_openat int dfd const char *filename int flags int mode    
258 sys_mkdirat int dfd const char *pathname int mode      
259 sys_mknodat int dfd const char *filename int mode unsigned dev    
260 sys_fchownat int dfd const char *filename uid_t user gid_t group int flag  
261 sys_futimesat int dfd const char *filename struct timeval *utimes      
262 sys_newfstatat int dfd const char *filename struct stat *statbuf int flag    
263 sys_unlinkat int dfd const char *pathname int flag      
264 sys_renameat int oldfd const char *oldname int newfd const char *newname    
265 sys_linkat int oldfd const char *oldname int newfd const char *newname int flags  
266 sys_symlinkat const char *oldname int newfd const char *newname      
267 sys_readlinkat int dfd const char *pathname char *buf int bufsiz    
268 sys_fchmodat int dfd const char *filename mode_t mode      
269 sys_faccessat int dfd const char *filename int mode      
270 sys_pselect6 int n fd_set *inp fd_set *outp fd_set *exp struct timespec *tsp void *sig
271 sys_ppoll struct pollfd *ufds unsigned int nfds struct timespec *tsp const sigset_t *sigmask size_t sigsetsize  
272 sys_unshare unsigned long unshare_flags          
273 sys_set_robust_list struct robust_list_head *head size_t len        
274 sys_get_robust_list int pid struct robust_list_head **head_ptr size_t *len_ptr      
275 sys_splice int fd_in loff_t *off_in int fd_out loff_t *off_out size_t len unsigned int flags
276 sys_tee int fdin int fdout size_t len unsigned int flags    
277 sys_sync_file_range long fd loff_t offset loff_t bytes long flags    
278 sys_vmsplice int fd const struct iovec *iov unsigned long nr_segs unsigned int flags    
279 sys_move_pages pid_t pid unsigned long nr_pages const void **pages const int *nodes int *status int flags
280 sys_utimensat int dfd const char *filename struct timespec *utimes int flags    
281 sys_epoll_pwait int epfd struct epoll_event *events int maxevents int timeout const sigset_t *sigmask size_t sigsetsize
282 sys_signalfd int ufd sigset_t *user_mask size_t sizemask      
283 sys_timerfd_create int clockid int flags        
284 sys_eventfd unsigned int count          
285 sys_fallocate long fd long mode loff_t offset loff_t len    
286 sys_timerfd_settime int ufd int flags const struct itimerspec *utmr struct itimerspec *otmr    
287 sys_timerfd_gettime int ufd struct itimerspec *otmr        
288 sys_accept4 int fd struct sockaddr *upeer_sockaddr int *upeer_addrlen int flags    
289 sys_signalfd4 int ufd sigset_t *user_mask size_t sizemask int flags    
290 sys_eventfd2 unsigned int count int flags        
291 sys_epoll_create1 int flags          
292 sys_dup3 unsigned int oldfd unsigned int newfd int flags      
293 sys_pipe2 int *filedes int flags        
294 sys_inotify_init1 int flags          
295 sys_preadv unsigned long fd const struct iovec *vec unsigned long vlen unsigned long pos_l unsigned long pos_h  
296 sys_pwritev unsigned long fd const struct iovec *vec unsigned long vlen unsigned long pos_l unsigned long pos_h  
297 sys_rt_tgsigqueueinfo pid_t tgid pid_t pid int sig siginfo_t *uinfo    
298 sys_perf_event_open struct perf_event_attr *attr_uptr pid_t pid int cpu int group_fd unsigned long flags  
299 sys_recvmmsg int fd struct msghdr *mmsg unsigned int vlen unsigned int flags struct timespec *timeout  
300 sys_fanotify_init unsigned int flags unsigned int event_f_flags        
301 sys_fanotify_mark long fanotify_fd long flags __u64 mask long dfd long pathname  
302 sys_prlimit64 pid_t pid unsigned int resource const struct rlimit64 *new_rlim struct rlimit64 *old_rlim    
303 sys_name_to_handle_at int dfd const char *name struct file_handle *handle int *mnt_id int flag  
304 sys_open_by_handle_at int dfd const char *name struct file_handle *handle int *mnt_id int flags  
305 sys_clock_adjtime clockid_t which_clock struct timex *tx        
306 sys_syncfs int fd          
307 sys_sendmmsg int fd struct mmsghdr *mmsg unsigned int vlen unsigned int flags    
308 sys_setns int fd int nstype        
309 sys_getcpu unsigned *cpup unsigned *nodep struct getcpu_cache *unused      
310 sys_process_vm_readv pid_t pid const struct iovec *lvec unsigned long liovcnt const struct iovec *rvec unsigned long riovcnt unsigned long flags
311 sys_process_vm_writev pid_t pid const struct iovec *lvec unsigned long liovcnt const struct iovcc *rvec unsigned long riovcnt unsigned long flags

转自 http://blog.rchapman.org/post/36801038863/linux-system-call-table-for-x86-64




php-fpm网站目录权限配置
Tag php-fpm, 权限, nginx, on by view 6799

今天本来想搭建一个现成的php网站系统,打算使用nginx+php-fpm来搭建。可是,问题来了……

将php文件放置于/usr/local/nginx/html下,一切正常,我将php文件放置于其它目录却出问题了,File not found. ,nginx配置文件没有任何问题,配置文件如下:

worker_processes  1;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}

http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    sendfile        on;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;

        access_log  logs/rex_test.log;

        #root         /tmpwww/hello;
        root          /tmpwww/test;

        location / {
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
    }
}

配置文件是不存在错误的,各种百度谷歌之后,觉得问题应该是出在网站目录权限上,特地测试了一下,手动创建了/tmpwww文件夹,在其下手动创建hello文件夹,其下放置info.php文件:

<?php
phpinfo();

访问,正常。为了重现错误,我在tmpwww文件夹下面创建test文件夹,其下info.php。正常,tree -p查看我原来不能正常访问的网站目录,发现部分层级的目录是drwxr-x---,你妹这不是group连读的权限都没有么。chmod 750 /tmpwww/test将/tmpwww/test也改为了drwxr-x---,nginx配置文件改为如上(即网站根切换到/tmpwww/test),File not found. 再次出现,故障重现了。

php_fpm_permission_debug.png

总结,对于php-fpm,网站目录必须至少可读,并且其路径中涉及到的各层级目录也必须保证至少可读,只有这样php-fpm及其worker进程才能访问到网站的根目录。


二叉树非递归解汉诺塔
Tag 汉诺塔, 非递归, 算法, 数据结构, 二叉树, on by view 6426

解汉诺塔最常见的方法是递归法,记得上数据结构那门课的时候老师说过,递归法通常情况下都能够找到一种非递归的方法来实现,汉诺塔也有非递归的方法解决。

递归方法:

首先把三根柱子按顺序排成品字型,把所有的圆盘按从大到小的顺序放在柱子A上,根据圆盘的数量确定柱子的排放顺序:若n为偶数,按顺时针方向依次摆放 A B C;若n为奇数,按顺时针方向依次摆放 A C B。

  1. 按顺时针方向把圆盘1从现在的柱子移动到下一根柱子,即当n为偶数时,若圆盘1在柱子A,则把它移动到B;若圆盘1在柱子B,则把它移动到C;若圆盘1在柱子C,则把它移动到A。

  2. 接着,把另外两根柱子上可以移动的圆盘移动到新的柱子上。即把非空柱子上的圆盘移动到空柱子上,当两根柱子都非空时,移动较小的圆盘。这一步没有明确规定移动哪个圆盘,你可能以为会有多种可能性,其实不然,可实施的行动是唯一的。

  3. 反复进行1、2操作,最后就能按规定完成汉诺塔的移动。

所以结果非常简单,就是按照移动规则向一个方向移动金片:
如3阶汉诺塔的移动:A→C,A→B,C→B,A→C,B→A,B→C,A→C

非递归方法

  1. 确定起点塔、终点塔,确定层数n

  2. 若由A到C,画出其下分支

                     A→C                          1

            A→B          B→C                  2

    A→C   C→B    BA   A→C           3

  3. 中序遍历得到结果A→C, A→B, C→B, A→C, BA , B→C, A→C

tree-script.jpg
5阶汉诺塔二叉树(演算手稿)

这种非递归的方法在手工演算方面着实简易,只需列出这棵二叉树便能够迅速写出答案。哈哈,挺适合做试卷的。不过,用此方法编程从理解上到也是比较容易的,比起递归法可能代码稍多但理解较易。


初尝windows 10
Tag win10, windows, on by view 4156

前不久新版本的windows出来了,名字是windows 10,而不是大家以为的windows 9。windows 10技术预览版的iso镜像出来了,试用了一下。

总体风格继承了windows 8
Windows 10 x64-2014-10-04-19-54-34.png

开始菜单回来了
Windows 10 x64-2014-10-04-20-22-24.png

命令提示符复制可以用ctrl+c,选中无需右键了
Windows 10 x64-2014-10-04-19-56-13.png

windows modern ui支持窗口模式了
Windows 10 x64-2014-10-04-20-01-04.png

支持多桌面了
Windows 10 x64-2014-10-04-20-17-23.png

总之,外观上感觉与windows 8的风格没有太大的区别。至於内在的更新也不是一眼能够看出来的,相信随着大家逐步的使用是能够逐渐发现新版的系统的变化的。